• Negative (Postmodern) Paradigm of SD and the United States


  1. ​​    Replaces Enlightenment-era National (U.S.) Constitutionalism With​ Universal 
            International Constitutionalism
             a.      Entails a Constitutional Right to Environmental Quality & Revision of Science                           & the Scientific Method  


           b.     Engenders a Radical Transformation of Individualism & the Loss  of Exclusive

                   Private Property Rights​ ,     


      ​  2.  ​   Manifests Itself in Critical Legal StudiesTheory, Jurisprudence,​ Movements &



      3      Calls for Private Property Rights-Transforming (Land Preservation) Initiatives

            Likely to Trigger Public Opposition:

            a.     The United Nations ("UN") Biosphere Reserves is Opposed by the New Jersey                         Commission of Safety
            ​b.     The Women's Group Critically Reviews the Habitat II's SD Terminology 
            c.     Multiple Efforts Made to Enact the American Land Sovereignty Protection Act
                    (H.R. 883  105th); (S. 2575); (H.R. 901 105th106th), in response to:


                    i.    The Conference on Human Settlements & National Biosphere Reserves 

                          (United Nations Education Scientific & Cultural Organization ("UNESCO"), 

                          following UN General Assembly Resolution (GA/47/180) & the UN

                          Vancouver Declaration & Plan of Action

            d.     U.S. Ratification of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity is Prevented Due
                    to Congressional & Public Opposition


      4.     As Expressed Through Presidential SD Efforts: 

            a.     President's Council on SD and National Security Strategy
                    i.     Task Forces
                    ii.    Publications
                    iii.   SD Education Panel First Annual Report (1998)

                          A.   (Federal SD Curriculum Framework Implemented at State Level)                                        
            b.     U.S.-Canada International Joint Commission Report

                   i.    Recommends Precautionary Principle-Based 'Weight-of-Evidence' Approach
                          Rather than 'Strength-of-Evidence' Approach of Evaluating Data by Federal

                          Regulatory Agencies Where There is Scientific Uncertainty (pp. 20-31)

            c.     President's SD Policy Directive ("PPD") & Inter-Agency Task Force
            d.    ​ President's National Security Strategy to Accelerate SD (pp. 33-34)

            ​e.     Encouraging National, State & Local  Implementation of UN Agenda 21 and its
                    incorporation into national environmental law,  city by city, if necessary, via
                    local government action

                    i.   Which Reconceptualizes Private Property Rights in Conflict With SD

                   ii.   Which restricts exercise of exclusive private property rights & commerce 

                  iii.   Which enables government private property 'takings' without compensation

                  iv.   Which Has Generated State & Local Opposition Challenging Agenda 21 Laws

                  v.   Which Has Triggered the Concern of Negative SD Advocates in the Academy
                         and the progressive media (here) and (here)   
            f.     As an Expression of a New anti-New Deal Post-Modern Federalism

     5.     Reflects Use of the Precautionary Principle in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments &

            in Clean Air Act Section 202(a) of the 1977 CAA Amendments, via employment of

            'linear non-threshold' (LNT) dose-response curves, which method was recently 

            documented as having not been subtantiated by scientific method (here) & (here)


​     6.    Encourages the First Circuit Court of Appeals to Adopt the Precautionary Principle-

            Based 'Weight-of-Evidence' Approach of Evaluating Data When There is Scientific

            Uncertainty, Failing to Meet the Standards Articulated by the U.S. Supreme Court

            in  Daubert v. Merrell Pharmaceuticals, Inc..

            a.      Milward v. Acuity Specialty Products Group, Inc., 639 F. 3d 11 (1st Cir. 2011)
                   i.   Milward is Criticized as Compromising the U.S. Supreme Court's Standards
                         in Daubert, Joiner, & Kumho which require trial courts to serve the critical
                         role of 'gatekeeper' to ensure the quality of admissible scientific &                                        technical evidence (here, here, & here)


                   ii.    Petitions for Certiorari - (Denied Jan. 9, 2012

          b.    Following the Milward Decision, the Federal Judicial Center, in Cooperation With

                   the National Research Council of the National Academies, Changed its Position

                   Concerning the 'Weight-of-Evidence' Approach, Even Though Governmental 

                   Risk Assessment Assumptions Are Not Automatically Relevant For Proving

                   Proximate Causation at Trial                   

                   i.     Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence(Third Edition) (excerpts)


                   ii.    Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence (Second  Edition) (excerpts)


       7.      Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations Provided the Administration With a

            Detailed SD "Greenprint" Containing Recommendations For Transforming U.S. Legal

            & Scientific Standards

            a.    This "Greenprint" is Not Inconsistent With the UN Conference on Sustainable
                   Development's ("CSD's") "Transition to Green" Report

​Issues - Negative (Postmodern) SD and the United States

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